The following events took place in 1965 CE, or Common Era.
- On May 18, the Soviets launch humanity's two-cosmonaut spacecraft, Voskhod 2. Cosmonaut Alexei Leonev becomes the first human to perform work in the vacuum of space. This marks the end of Soviet dominence in the "Space Race"; Sergey Korolyov, the lead rocket engineer and spacecraft designer for the Soviet space program, dies seven months later, and the Soviet space program is put on hiatus for two years.
- The North American Space Agency's Mariner 4 probe, launched in late 1964 CE, flies past Mars and takes pictures of its surface, delivering humanity's first up-close glimpse at the surface of another planet.